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Thursday, November 29, 2012

Sneak Peek from the Stacks: Happy Birthday Gertrude Jekyll

Today is Gertrude Jekyll's birthday. In the garden design and horticulture world, Gertrude Jekyll (1843-1932) is considered one of the most important garden designers of the twentieth century. She was particularly noted for the use of color in her garden designs, thanks to the plant palettes she chose. The Archives of American Gardens honors her life's work and influence on American garden design by taking a 'sneak peek' at Orchards, one of her designs in Surrey, England, photographed in 1906 by another garden designer, Thomas Warren Sears.
Orchards, a collaboration between Gertrude Jekyll and architect Edwin Lutyens in Surrey, England, 1906.
Thomas Warren Sears, photographer.
 Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, Thomas Warren Sears Collection

For more information: Judith Tankard, a landscape historian, author, and preservation consultant, has written numerous books and articles on Jekyll including "Gertrude Jekyll and the Country House Garden: From the Archives of Country Life" published in 2011. A review of it by librarian Maureen Horn at the Massachusetts Horticultural Society is located here.

Kelly Crawford
Museum Specialist
Smithsonian Gardens 

Helping People with AIDS

Helping People with AIDS Tea Dance Advertisement, 2003

Recently the Helping People with AIDS (HPA) Records were donated to the Archives Center by the Gay Alliance of the Genesee Valley, Rochester, New York.  HPA was a volunteer organization founded in August 1986 to raise money for uninsured Rochester area AIDS patients and to hire a full-time nurse-practitioner for the HIV and AIDS clinic at Strong Memorial Hospital.  Over the course of the next seventeen years, HPA held numerous fundraisers and assisted in paying for medications, medical treatment, and expensive prescriptions.

By 1991, HPA had created a Wish List Fund.  This fund was dedicated to helping fulfill the “wishes” of people with AIDS.  Wishes were granted for travel to family and friends, television sets, veterinary care for a sufferer’s pet, and many other diverse requests.  The fund was supported with ten percent of the proceeds from HPA fundraisers. The fund could be accessed once a year for up to $100. 
By 1992, a quarter of a million dollars had been raised.  Prior to 1992, all of the donations collected were given to the AIDS Clinic at Strong Memorial Hospital for direct treatment and distribution.  As of 1992, HPA handled funds distribution, disseminating them to as many HIV and AIDS assistance organizations as possible.
By 2003, funding for AIDS organizations was available and there was less need in the community for financial support for people with HIV.  In November 2003, the HPA Board voted to dissolve the corporation and donate the remaining funds to AIDS Rochester.  After seventeen years, HPA’s fundraising total was close to $1,000,000.

The HPA Records at the Archives Center document the final years of its life and its administration of The Wish Fund. They provide a window into a locally based charitable organization with a long involvement in fighting HIV and AIDS.  The records complement a range of collections centered on the HIV and AIDS epidemic and are reflective of the grassroots efforts growing out of the LGBT community in the 1980s in response to the HIV and AIDS crisis.

Note: December 1 is World AIDS Day.

Franklin A. Robinson, Jr., Archives Specialist
Archives Center, National Museum of American History

Wednesday, November 28, 2012

Great Aunts in the Archives

Three women in a tree, ca. 1895 / unidentified photographer
 John Frederick Peto and Peto family papers, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution

As a reference archivist at the Archives of American Art, I’m well acquainted with the wide variety of projects in art history and related disciplines that our holdings can inform. Every now and then, though, we hear from a different kind of researcher—one for whom the papers of an artist or his or her family carry personal meaning. Family historians—or genealogists—are usually well versed in using a variety of government and other official records to fill out their family trees, but the experience of using manuscript collections, such as those at Archives of American Art, can be new and, hopefully, rewarding. A researcher may know of an artist in the family (somehow it’s often a great aunt), or have a work of art by the relative, and a search for more information leads to the Archives of American Art.

Most of our collections of artists’ papers include at least basic biographical information from the artist, but there are many that also have more detailed material of interest to genealogists, including family trees in the John Henry Bradley Storrs papers, the Winslow Homer family Bible, and other family records, such as genealogies in the Jervis McEntee papers. And, sometimes you find literal family trees, or families in trees. In this case, John Peto’s aunts.

Our oral history collections are another great source of information on artists’ families as many begin with questions about the artist or subject’s parents and upbringing. The interview with Kathleen Curry, the wife of artist John Stewart Curry, includes a wonderful description of her parents’ impromptu courtship and marriage.

I’m always happy to assist researchers in our reading room, but there is a special place in my heart for those who visit to explore letters written by their ancestors, view baby pictures of their grandparents, and round out the history of their families through first–hand accounts of births, marriages, deaths, travels, and careers.

--Marisa Bourgoin is the Richard Manoogian Chief of Reference Services at the Archives of American Art.

This post was originally published on the Archives of American Art Blog.

Monday, November 19, 2012

Karoo Ashevak of the Arctic Circle

It is easy to get lost in the notion that archives hold discoveries and document the historical past (which they do!)  It is equally important, however, to remember that archives contain treasures from contemporary society and the recent past.

One of the collections housed at the National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center are records from the Arctic Circle Gallery, an art gallery established by Bert and Ellen Witt in Los Angeles with the purpose of highlighting Inuit art. The Witt’s aimed to support Inuit communities by purchasing art through the Arctic Co-operative movement and by cultivating friendships with native artists.  In addition to gallery information this collection contains materials gathered by the Witt Family: Bert, Ellen, and Tony, on travels to the Canadian Arctic.

Photo by Tony Witt. P28589

The photo above shows Bert Witt and Karoo Ashevak in 1973 in Karoo’s hometown of Spence Bay (now known as Taloyoak).  Taloyoak is located in Canada’s Nanavut Territory and is home to Netsilik Inuits.

Karoo Fishing. 1973. Photo by Tony Witt. P28590
 While Karoo appears to have been an ace fisher (pictured) he is described in manuscript material as having a fervent curiosity and memorable energy and curiosity.  There are stories of Karoo driving his Ski-doo sitting backwards, or on his head and was known for racing his canoe. (It also appears he had an infectious smile!)  He was married to Doris Ashavak and had two adopted children Louise and Larry.  Doris and Karoo sadly perished in a fire in 1974.

Karoo was also an artist, a carver, and he worked with whale bone.  The carving pictured below is titled “Drum Dancer” and was purchased by the Witt Family from the Spence Bay Cooperative (now Taloyoak cooperative).  It is now part of the National Museum of the American Indian’s object collection.

Drum Dancer by Karoo Ashevak. 260382
It is good fortune that Karoo is able to continue on through his carvings, these pictures, and the manuscript material.  I was originally drawn to the picture of Karoo because of his wonderful grin, and, using the material available in the archives – learned about his life and his family.  Moments like this are one example of how archives can help us rediscover the not-so-distant past.

Nichole Procopenko
Archives Scanning Technician
National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center

Friday, November 16, 2012

The Quileute: Life Before Twilight

Excited Twilight fans will be hitting the movie theaters in droves for Breaking Dawn - Part 2, the last installment of the vampire/werewolf series. In the thrilling conclusion, Bella and Edward, the undead teen couple, deal with unplanned parenthood and a werewolf (aka former love triangle member) imprinting on their daughter, all while Bella adjusts to her post-pregnancy body. Throw in some Volturi, and you've got some serious problems. Whether you're Team Edward, Team Jacob, or Team I Don't Care, no one can deny that since the first Twilight movie was released in 2008, the series has become a pop culture sensation.

So what are fans to do once they've read all the Twilight books and watched all the movies? While you won't be able to find field notes on vampire kinship patterns at the National Anthropological Archives, you can find linguistic and ethnographic materials relating to the Quileute, the tribe portrayed as werewolves in the Twilight series. 

Quileute woman with her two daughters
SPC Nwc Quileute BAE 1-25 00092700
As our savvy readers can guess, the legends and history of the tribe described in Twilight were largely fabricated by series creator Stephanie Myers. While wolves figure prominently in Quileute mythology, werewolves do not. According to the Quiluete creation myth, the first Quileute people were wolves changed into humans by the Transformer Kwati, but that is the only time. Nowhere in Quileute folklore are there stories of humans turning into wolves.

Due to the soaring popularity of the Twilight franchise, the Quileute Nation of La Push, Washington has received quite a bit of attention, and its reservation has become a popular tourist destination. To help dispel much of the misinformation spread by the Twilight series, the Seattle Art Museum worked closely with the Quileute to mount the exhibit Behind the Scenes: The Real Story of the Quileute Wolves (August 2010 to August 2011, later on view at the National Museum of American Indians - January 2012 to May 2012).

For the exhibit, the National Anthropological Archives loaned a selection of drawings by students from the Quileute Day School in Mora, near La Push, Washington. These drawings, collected by their teacher Albert B. Reagan in 1905 to 1909, depict traditional Quileute ceremonies and objects, as well as scenes from everyday life. With an eye for detail, the students captured rituals and a way of life no longer practiced today.

Wolf Ritual Dance by F.L Bennet
Inv 08655200, Manuscript 1802

Acording to anthropologist Leo J. Frachtenberg ("The Ceremonial Societies of the Quileute Indians," 1921), the Quileute had five ceremonial societies.  Along with the wolf society for warriors, there were societies for fishermen, hunters, whale hunters, and weather prediction. The ceremonies, consisting of ritual dances, songs, and potlatches, were held during the winter months to honor guardian spirits and to initiate new members to the societies.

One of the ceremonies depicted in the drawings is the Wolf Ritual, which takes place over 6 days. On the first day of the ceremony, men wearing wolf masks and blankets are followed by other members of the wolf society carrying salal bushes on their shoulders.

Wolf Ritual dance by Jimmie C. Hobucket
Inv 08656600, Manuscript 1802

In this scene, dancers in the society for hunters hold sticks, which are always carried on hunts, and imitate the actions of hunters and game animals. 

Ka-Kla-Kwal dance, artist unknown
Inv 08656100, Manuscript 1802

Whaling, once an important part of Quileute culture, ceased in 1904 due to government regulations. The whale hunters society consequently ended as well, but the Quileute continue to this day to hold ceremonies honoring whales.

Quileute whaling scene by Frank L. Bennett
Inv 08655400, Manuscript 1802

In addition to the ceremonies of the five societies, the Quileute also practiced the rituals of the Shaker religion. The Indian Shaker Church, not to be confused with the New England religion, was founded by John Slocum in 1881. Containing a mix of Native American, Catholic, and Protestant influences, the religion was established in La Push in 1895. Characteristic of their services was the shaking or trembling of members to heal the sick.

Shaker Dance, artist unknown Inv 08655000, Manuscript 1802

These drawings provide just a snippet of traditional Quileute culture. It may be too late to catch Behind the Scenes: The Real Story of the Quileute Wolves, but you can still view these and other drawings by Quileute school children online. You can also visit Truth Versus Twilight, created by the Burke Museum of University of Washington in collaboration with the Quileute Nation.

Monday, November 12, 2012

Sneak Peek from the Stacks: A Voice from Harpers Ferry

Henrietta Leary Evans (1827–1908) was among the approximately one hundred men and women gathered at Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, for the second annual meeting of the Niagara Movement, an African American civil rights organization founded by W.E.B. DuBois in the early twentieth century. The organizers of the meeting set aside a day to honor John Brown, an abolitionist who unsuccessfully attempted to free enslaved African Americans in his 1859 raid of Harpers Ferry. In an article for The Negro Voice, Jesse Max Barber described John Brown’s Day at the convention as “the most interesting session of the whole four days at Harpers Ferry.” Several speakers addressed the audience that August 17, 1906, including Lewis Douglass, son of abolitionist Frederick Douglass, W.E. B. Du Bois, and Rev. Reverdy C. Ransom. Newspapers reported on the greatest of the orations given by both Du Bois and Rev. Ransom. However, Henrietta Leary Evans also captivated attendees that afternoon with words about two of the five African American participants with John Brown: Lewis Sheridan Leary, Mrs. Evans’s brother, and her nephew, John A. Copeland.
Jesse Max Barber provides a description of Mrs. Evans’s comments in his article, “The Niagara Movement at Harpers Ferry.”  Barber writes:“
"Mrs. Evans was asked to say a word. In a voice made slender by age she told of the bravery, the love for freedom and the self-sacrifice of her kinsmen in dying as they died for the race. Of her brother she said his enemies paid him the tribute of saying that he was a very brave man. The whole audience hung with bated breath upon every word uttered by Mrs. Evans and what she said made a great impression.”
Henrietta Leary Evans, 1906.  Evans-Tibbs Collections
Photograph by Addison N. Scurlock
The above portrait of Mrs. Evans by Addison N. Scurlock was taken in 1906 and forms part of the vast family photographs and albums found in the Evans-Tibbs Collection at the Anacostia Community Museum Archives. 

To learn more about Henrietta Leary Evans and her pioneering family see the following resources:
Jennifer Morris

Thursday, November 8, 2012

Sneak Peek from the Stacks: And now for the returns...

Department of Anthropology Pottery Lab, NMNH.
Photo courtesy of Dave Rosenthal.
No, I’m not referring to election returns.  This month the National Museum of Natural History’s Department of Anthropology will begin the return of a vast collection of archaeological artifacts collected from excavations conducted by former curator Gus Van Beek (1922-2012) at Tel Jemmeh, Israel.  The return of the artifacts to the Israeli Antiquities Authority is part of the original agreement between Dr. Van Beek and the government of Israel.  His excavations at the site located in the southwestern region of that country near its ancient border with Egypt began in 1970 and continued for 11 years.  Israel allowed the removal of the artifacts found at the site by the Smithsonian Institution for processing and research at NMNH.  Dr. Van Beek set-up a pottery lab in the east basement of the museum where a dedicated staff of SI Behind-the-Scenes Volunteers sorted and assembled the ceramic sherds into the original vessels.  Some  loyal volunteers worked with Dr. Van Beek for more than 10 years at the task. The final report of this valuable collection is being produced by Dr. David Ben Schlomo of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and is due for publication in the fall of 2013 (  

In advance of this return a large amount of the unidentifiable ceramic sherds from the site were donated to Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary for educational purposes in conjunction with their exhibition “Dead Sea Scrolls & the Bible: Ancient Artifacts, Timeless Treasures” (  Dr. Van Beek, whose career at the Smithsonian spanned nearly 50 years from 1959 to 2008, was a former student of the renowned biblical archaeologist William F. Albright. The Tel Jemmeh site is known to have been occupied between 1700 B.C.E. and 200 B.C.E. The donation of the sherds was by mutual agreement between the two institutions and with the full consent of the Israeli Antiquities Authority.  You can read more about this project at:  (  

During his 1970 to 1973 fieldwork seasons, Dr. Van Beek was accompanied by a Smithsonian Institution cameraman to document the excavations at Tel Jemmeh with motion picture film.  The footage forms the Human Studies Film Archives collection
90.14.1 [Smithsonian Institution Excavations at Tel Jemmeh, Israel, 1970-1973].  The nearly 2 hours of silent 16 mm original color reversal film provides useful visual documentation of the site’s organization to aid researchers in understanding the written analysis of the finds. Upon his retirement in 2008, the National Anthropological Archives formally accessioned the Papers of Gus Willard Van Beek.  Along with his work at Tel Jemmeh, Dr. Van Beek conducted research and published extensively on the traditional earthen architecture of the Middle East region.

Sadly, Dr. Van Beek passed away earlier this year. The Department of Anthropology will host a memorial event on Monday, December 3, 2012 at the National Museum of Natural History’s Baird Auditorium from 2:30-4:00 pm.  The event will also celebrate the lives and careers of his two colleagues from the department: Dr. Betty Meggers, Curator of South American Ethnology and Dr. Don Ortner, Curator of Physical Anthropology.  Please join us on that day in honoring the unforgettable contributions of these Smithsonian scientists.

Mark White,
Human Studies Film Archives
With contributions from Dave Rosenthal and Jim Krakker, Department of Anthropology, NMNH
and the technical assistance of Daisy Njoku, HSFA

Tuesday, November 6, 2012

A rose by any other name

For a couple of years now I’ve contributed to this blog on behalf of the Human Studies Film Archives (HSFA). Today I’m penning this guest post from my new position as archivist for the Smithsonian Channel. For those who don’t know, the Smithsonian Channel is a television channel that showcases non-fiction programs highlighting America’s historical, cultural, and scientific heritage. Many of our original documentaries are based around the Smithsonian Institution’s staff, collections, exhibits, and research initiatives.

My first job was in documentary TV production, and I worked in that field for some years before finding my way into archives. So in many ways, returning to the production world was a kind of homecoming. But initially, I wondered if it would be a jarring change, going from a more traditional moving image archives with miles of 16mm and 35mm film to an almost entirely digital, production-oriented environment. What I’ve found, though, is that archival practice is archival practice. The specific tools we choose and the details of the policies we implement will vary according to the archives’ mission and the users’ needs, but the underlying goals are the same: know the collections, enable access to the collections, and keep the collections safe.

This clip, which features Ansel Adams prints from the National Museum of American History's Photographic History Division,
is from the series, Stories from the VaultsThe series goes behind the scenes at the Smithsonian to explore the vast collections
not currently on exhibit and share the tremendous knowledge held by curators and collections staff.

The only big difference is the form of the archival records I now care for. The HSFA has a wide variety of media in its collections, not just film but also audiotape and nearly every type of videotape produced for the consumer and professional markets. The Smithsonian Channel, by contrast, has a rapidly growing collection of file-based High Definition (HD) video in a variety of codecs and wrappers, as well as several current HD videotape formats. 

It’s exciting and challenging to work with this file-based material, as workflows and best practices are still being developed across multiple diverse fields, including archives, broadcast, and independent media producers. As far as I can tell, most traditional archives are not yet having to deal with this material in large amounts, but it won’t be too long before accessions of digital media start coming in. Hopefully some of the lessons learned by broadcast and production archives will be of help to cultural heritage organizations in determining the right tools for managing file-based video. Hopefully, too, the long view taken by the cultural heritage sector will influence policy and practice in broadcast and production. This is already happening, from what I’ve seen, as media creators realize that while digital video has many wonderful advantages, it is also more fragile than tape or film.

There are a number of great organizations and initiatives working to share knowledge and increase discussion and collaboration amongst archives, studios, broadcasters, filmmakers, scholars, and other users and creators of moving images. I’ve learned a great deal from conferences organized by the Association of Moving Image Archivists (AMIA) and Presto Centre. SMPTE and the Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Initiative (FADGI) are identifying best practices and working on specifications for technical standards. Of course, this kind of sharing happens at both macro and micro levels; I’m always learning from my fellow archivists, from librarians and conservators, and from the creators of the moving images I care for.

The last collection I processed for the HSFA was the edited films of anthropologist Jerome Mintz, which were shot on 16mm film. When I wound those last few rolls of film onto archival cores and placed them in their new, vented cans, I wondered, sadly, how long it might be before I handled actual film again, or if I ever would. I still love film and would love to work with it again, but working with digital collections has reinforced the reason I got into this field to begin with – I love the moving image and its unique ability to tell stories and convey feelings. One of the first collections I worked on at Smithsonian Channel was the raw footage for Skateboard Nation (below). If I had any lingering doubts about my new work environment and the terabytes of video files awaiting me, this fantastic footage and amazing interviews with Native American skaters put that all to rest. Whether printed onto film, conveyed via analog video signal, or encoded in 1s and 0s, it’s the content that matters. It's all equally sweet.

The Smithsonian Channel documentary, Skateboard Nation, was inspired by an exhibit on
Native American skateboard culture at the National Museum of the American Indian called Ramp It Up.

Karma Foley, Smithsonian Channel

With thanks to SIRIS Blog coordinator, Cecilia Peterson, and Courtney Esposito at Smithsonian Institution Archives for this opportunity to contribute to the SIRIS Blog as a guest blogger.

Thursday, November 1, 2012


"World Championship Series / Washington vs. Pittsburgh". Scorecard from 1925 World Series between the Washington Nationals and the Pittsburgh Pirates.

The Washington Nationals made it to the post season!   Though eliminated in the Division Series, Washington baseball fans can celebrate an excellent season.  Since moving to Washington from Montreal in 2005, the team has not had a winning season until this year, when, led by Manager Davey Johnson, they finished with 98 wins and 64 losses – the best record in Major League Baseball.  Throughout most of its history, Washington’s baseball teams have only rarely enjoyed winning seasons.  The American League Washington Nationals who played from 1900-1960, before relocating to the Twin Cities, achieved the feat only 16 times, with their best years falling during the 1910s and 1920s under Managers Clark Griffith and Bucky Harris.   The Washington Senators who played here from 1961-1971 before they were relocated to Texas to become the Rangers, had only one winning season, in 1969, managed by Ted Williams.  Thirty three dark years would pass following the 1971 season, before the Nation’s Capital saw diamond action again with the Montreal Expos’ relocation to the District.  

The year 1925 was one of only three times in which the city of Washington saw its team go to the post season, when they posted a 96 win, 55 loss record.  The program illustrated here is from the World Series, in which the American League Nationals (sometimes called the Senators) faced the National League Pittsburgh Pirates, who’d finished with a 95-58 record.  There were no divisions within leagues in those days, so teams that won their league’s pennant went straight to the World Series. 

The previous year, Washington had won the only World Series they would ever win, beating John McGraw’s New York Giants in seven games, the win in the final game coming in sudden death on a hit in the bottom of the 12th inning by Earl McNeely, scoring catcher Muddy Ruel from 2nd base.  Ruel had reached base on a double following a dropped foul by the Giants’ catcher Hank Gowdy, who’d failed to make the play when he’d tripped on his own mask.  

Things looked promising for Washington’s team as 1925’s World Series began in Pittsburgh’s Forbes Field.  Game 1 featured future Hall of Fame pitcher Walter Johnson dominating the Pirates, with Washington winning 4-1.  The Pirates took game 2 with a score of 3-2.  Washington took a lead of three games to one as the Series came to Washington’s Griffith Stadium for the middle games.  They won 4-3 in game 3, and Walter Johnson dazzled fans again in game 4, shutting the Pirates out 4-0 on six hits, with Goose Goslin and Joe Harris each hitting a pair of solo homers.  Game 5, in Washington, and Game 6, in Pittsburgh, saw the Pirates come back to tie the Series, with scores of 6-3 and 3-2. In the final game, Johnson hoped to win three games in one World Series.  It was not to be.

The final game, originally scheduled for October 14, was cancelled due to rain, and rescheduled for the 15th, even though conditions on the field were terrible.  Author Roger Treat, in Walter Johnson: King of the Pitchers, described the pitching mound as “a quagmire” and compared the playing field to “soft, brown ice cream”.    Fog, smog and chilly temperatures further complicated things.  At first things looked good for the Nationals and dismal for the Pirates as every man in the Washington lineup batted in the top of the first inning and Washington took a 4-0 lead , knocking out Pittsburgh starter Vic Aldridge.  An on-and-off drizzle turned into a steady soak as the first inning ended, and intensified as the game progressed.  Johnson found it almost impossible to grip the baseball or to throw strikes.  The Pirates scored three times in the third inning and another in the fifth, but Washington had scored twice in the fourth.  Baseball Commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis, seated next to team owner Clark Griffith, wanted to stop play but was talked out of it by Griffith.  By the 7th inning, with rain falling harder, enough outs had been recorded to make it a legal game, and again Landis made the decision to call the game and let the score stand 6-4 in Washington’s favor.  Again he was overruled by Griffith, who feared that people would say that the Commissioner gave the series to Washington.  

The last of the seventh inning saw Washington lose the lead.  It started with an error on a routine pop fly, a disputed call on a line drive (apparently foul but called fair) resulting in a run, and a triple hit by Pie Traynor that he attempted to stretch to a home run.  Though out at the plate, he’d driven in the Pirates’ 6th run.  Sheets of rain continued to fall.  Shortstop Roger Peckinpaugh, who’d committed the error, atoned with a home run in the top of the eighth, but the Nationals’ one run lead was brief.  The Pirates tied it 7-7 on a pair of doubles followed by another error by Peckinpaugh that should have been the third out, but instead put a second man on base.  A disputed call on the next batter, future Hall of Famer Kiki Cuyler (a ball that appeared to be a third strike, but called a ball) was followed by a double by Cuyler, which scored both runners, giving the Pirates the lead, 9-7, a lead they would hold as three consecutive future Hall of Famers, Sam Rice, Bucky Harris and Goose Goslin, were retired by Pirate reliever John Oldham, with both Rice and Goslin striking out.  

The city of Washington would see post season baseball just once more before the 2012 season.  In 1933, the World Series was a rematch with their 1924 opponents, the New York Giants.  The Senators lost the World Series in five games.  That Series also featured several future Hall of Famers, including Carl Hubbell and Mel Ott for the Giants, and for the Senators, Joe Cronin and Heinie Manush.  

Opening day for Major League Baseball is April 1, 2013.  As always, the first day of the season is a day of limitless possibilities, with each team’s fans visualizing their heroes taking it all in October.  But all 30 teams begin with a blank slate.  

- Cathy Keen, NMAH Archives Center